anaemia - types, symptoms, causes, Prevention, Diagnosis


Anaemia occurs when there is not enough healthy red blood cells or haemoglobin in the blood. Haemoglobin is necessary to bind oxygen to blood cells. If you have less or unusual red blood cells or your haemoglobin is less or unusual, then your body will not get enough oxygen. Anaemia symptoms such as fatigue feel when the body does not get enough oxygen.

Anaemia can easily be caused by people suffering from diseases such as women, children and diseases.

There are 10 million cases of anaemia every year in India.


Some important factors about anaemia are:

1. Some types of anaemia are inherited and some people are from anaemia childhood.

2. At an eligible age of pregnancy, women may easily have anaemia due to lack of blood due to menstruation and excessive blood requirement of the body.

3. Due to inappropriate diet and other medical problems, people may also develop anaemia.

There are many types of anaemia. The causes and remedies are different for everyone. The anaemia caused by iron deficiency is the most common and it can be treated with dietary changes and iron diet. Anaemia during pregnancy is considered to be somewhat common. However, due to some types of anaemia, health problems can be life-long.

Types of Anemia

1. Anaemia due to lack of iron: Anemia due to iron deficiency is a common type of anaemia, which usually occurs when there is a lot of blood loss due to the menstrual period. Anaemia can also be due to the lack of iron due to the development of embryonic (fetus) in pregnancy and, due to the iron requirement for childhood in childhood and development in adolescence.

2. Aplastic anaemia: Aplastic anaemia is a disorder of the blood, due to which the bone marrow of the body can not make enough blood cells. Due to this, many problems related to health such as Maritimes (arrhythmias; abnormal heartbeats), increase in heart size, heart failure, infarction and bleeding can occur. It develops suddenly or gradually and becomes serious over time until it is treated.

3. Haemolytic anaemia: Haemolytic anaemia occurs when red blood cells are destroyed or not in the bloodstream before the normal lifespan ends. Due to many diseases, situations and factors, the body can destroy red blood cells. Haemolytic anaemia can lead to many serious health problems such as fatigue, pain, artery disease (arrhythmias; abnormal heartbeat), heart rate increase, heart failure.

4. Thalassaemias: Thalassaemias is a genetic disorder that causes the body to form red blood cells and haemoglobin (an iron-rich protein in red blood cells). The major types of Thalassaemias are Alpha Thalassaemias and Beta Thalassemias (Thalassaemias). The severe type of alpha thalassaemias is called alpha-thalassemias Major or Hydrops Fetalis and the serious type of beta thalassemias is called Thalassaemias Major or Cooley's Anemia. Thalassaemias occurs both in men and women.

5. Sickle Cell Anemia: Sickle Cell Anemia is a serious disease in which the body creates red blood cells, like a sickle. Normal red blood cells are shaped like disks, due to which they easily pass through blood vessels. Red blood vessels contain proteins called haemoglobin (an iron-rich protein that gives blood red colour and oxygen moves from the lungs to other parts of the body).

6. Pernicious anaemia: Pernicious anaemia does not make enough red blood cells in the body because there are not enough vitamin B12 (a nutrient found in food) in the body. People who have Pernicious Anemia cannot absorb enough Vitamin B12 due to lack of one type of protein in the body. Vitamin B12 deficiency may also be due to many factors and factors.

7. Fanconi Anemia or FA is a genetic disorder that can cause bone marrow failure. FA is a type of aplastic anaemia that does not allow the bone marrow to make new blood cells. Due to the FA, the bone marrow creates several abnormal blood cells. This can lead to serious diseases such as leukaemia.


Symptoms of anaemia

Symptoms of anaemia will depend on the type of anaemia you have.

Some common symptoms of anaemia are:

1. Fatigue
2. Weakness
3. Pale skin
4. Heartbeat abnormalities
5. Shortness of breath
6. dizziness
7. Chest pain
8. Cooling of hands and feet
9. A headache

Initially, the symptoms of anaemia are ignored, but as anaemia begins to become serious, its symptoms also become serious.

Anaemia Causes

There are 400 types of anaemia, which can be divided into 3 areas:

Anaemia due to lack of blood

Lack of red blood cells can be due to bleeding, which can often occur gradually, and may be unnatural. This type of severe bleeding may occur due to the following reasons:

1.Gastrointestinal problems like ulcers, haemorrhoids, gastritis (inflammation of the stomach), and cancer.
2. Using NSAIDs such as aspirin and ibuprofen may cause ulcerative or gastritis.
3. Menstruation and childbirth in women, especially if there is excessive bleeding in menstrual periods and there have been many pregnancies.

Anaemia due to the production of defective red blood cells:

In this type of anaemia, the production of blood cells is low or blood cells do not work. Due to the lack of vitamins and minerals and abnormal red cells, red blood cells are dual or lower. The anaemia related to these conditions are as follows:

1. Sickle cell anaemia
2. Anaemia due to lack of iron
3. vitamin deficiency
4. Problems in bone marrow and stem cells
5.  Other health-related problems

Problems in the bone marrow and stem cells:

Due to problems in bone marrow and stem cells, the body is unable to produce enough red cells. Some stem cells found in the bone marrow are converted into all blood cells. Anaemia can occur if stem cells are less or two years old or have cancer in their area of ​​metastatic cells. Problems or diseases caused by problems in the bone marrow or stem cells are as follows:

1. Aplastic anaemia
2. Thalassemia
3. Toxicity in the bone marrow due to Lead

Low production of red blood cells due to lack of hormone:

The following reasons for this problem can be:

1. Kidney disease
2. Hypothyroidism
3. Chronic diseases like cancer, infection, 4. lupus, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis
4. Old age

Due to the loss of red blood cells, there may be anaemia:

When red blood cells are weak, then they can not tolerate the pressure of the circulatory system. Because of this, he may be damaged forever, due to which hemolytic anaemia can occur. Hemolytic anaemia can also be caused by birth. Sometimes there is no reason to be Hemolytic Anemia. The known causes of hemolytic anaemia are:

1. Genetic diseases like Sickle Cell Anemia and Thalassemia.
2. Infections, some medicines, the poison of snakes or spider, and some food substances
Toxicity caused by liver and kidney disease.
3. Unusual activity of the immune system (a hemolytic disease in a newborn baby is in the fetus (fetus) of a pregnant woman).
4. Vascular Graft, Problems in Heart Valve, Tumors, Problems Due to Burning, 5.Problems with Exposure to Chemicals, High Blood Pressure, Blood Clot Disorders
6. In some rare instances, the increased spiral stops red blood cells and destroys them.

Prevention of Anemia

Certain types of anaemia such as Sickle cell anaemia (which is a genetic disease) cannot be avoided.

It is also hard to avoid anaemia due to the lack of blood because accidents and injuries are unpredictable. If you are in a condition when you are bleeding more then you should try to stop or reduce your bleeding until you receive any medical help.

To avoid other types of anaemia:

1. Take a healthy diet containing iron.
2. Reduce the intake of tea and coffee because your body may have trouble absorbing iron.

3. Eat vitamin C more because it helps in the absorption of iron.

Diagnosis of Anemia

To diagnose anaemia, the doctor will ask you about your doctor and family history, perform your physical test and ask you to do the following test:

1. The test of complete blood count or the complete blood test (CBC) measures the number of cells in your blood sample. To diagnose anaemia, doctors will see the levels of red blood cells (Hematocrit and Hemoglobin) in your blood.

(Hematocrit) levels are 40-52% in males and 35-47% in females. Men have haemoglobin levels of 14-18 g / decilitre and women have 12-16 grams/deciliter.
2. A test will also be done to know the colours shapes and shapes of your red blood cells.
3. Sometimes your bone marrow specimen may be needed to diagnose anaemia

If your anaemia is diagnosed you will also be tested to know the cause of anaemia.

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